Atlantic Hurricane Lorenzo 22 Sep-3 Oct 2019
Successive observations by SMOS of the surface wind speed during the evolution of Hurricane Lorenzo, also known as Storm Lorenzo for Ireland and the United Kingdom while extratropical, was the easternmost Category 5 Atlantic hurricane on record. The twelfth named storm, fifth hurricane, third major hurricane and second Category 5 hurricane of the 2019 Atlantic hurricane season, Lorenzo developed from a tropical wave that moved off the west coast of Africa on September 22, growing larger in size over the course of its development. On September 26, it rapidly intensified into a Category 4 hurricane before weakening due to an eyewall replacement cycle. After completing the cycle, Lorenzo rapidly re-strengthened, peaking at Category 5 intensity. Steady weakening followed as the storm moved through harsher atmospheric conditions. With a fastening northeastward track and an expanding wind field, Lorenzo skirted the western Azores on October 2, producing the strongest winds for a tropical cyclone there in 20 years. It transitioned into an extratropical cyclone shortly after, racing towards Ireland and the United Kingdom and becoming the first named storm of the 2019–20 European windstorm season.
Through late September and early October, large swells radiated from the hurricane's massive wind field, impacting much of the Atlantic basin. French ship Bourbon Rhode capsized amid the violent seas on September 27; among its 14 crew members, three were rescued, four drowned, and the remaining seven are missing. Albeit more than 3,200 km (2,000 mi) west of the storm, four people drowned in rip currents along the coast of North Carolina, and two people were found dead after being swept away by large waves along the coast of New York. Dangerous sea conditions also spread to Bermuda and as far south as the Caribbean coasts of South America. On October 2, Lorenzo sped past the western Azores, bringing brief but strong winds to much of the archipelago. Flores and Corvo endured the worst of these winds, with a maximum gust of 163 km/h (101 mph) recorded on the latter island. The extratropical remnants of Lorenzo then affected Ireland and the United Kingdom on October 3 and 4, bringing gusty winds and heavy rains.